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Common issues treated by pediatric urologists

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Pediatric urologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the urinary tracts of infants, children, and adolescents, as well as issues related to the reproductive organs. These specialists are trained to treat conditions that are present from birth (congenital) as well as problems that develop during childhood. Here are some of the most common issues treated by pediatric urologists:

  • Hypospadias: A condition where the opening of the urethra is not located at the tip of the penis. Surgery is often performed to correct the position of the urethral opening.
  • Undescended Testicles (Cryptorchidism): This condition occurs when one or both testicles do not descend into the scrotal sac. Treatment may involve hormonal therapy or surgery (orchidopexy) to move the testicle(s) into the correct position.
  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): While UTIs are common in children, recurrent UTIs may require evaluation by a pediatric urologist to rule out underlying abnormalities of the urinary tract.
  • Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR): A condition where urine flows backward from the bladder to the kidneys. Treatment options include medication or surgery, depending on the severity.
  • Voiding Dysfunction: This includes a range of problems related to urination, such as overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, or difficulty urinating. Treatment may involve behavioral modifications, medication, or biofeedback.
  • Neurogenic Bladder: Dysfunction of the bladder due to a neurological condition or spinal injury. Management can include catheterization, medication, or surgery.
  • Phimosis and Paraphimosis: Phimosis is when the foreskin cannot be fully retracted over the glans penis, whereas paraphimosis is a condition where the retracted foreskin cannot be returned to its normal position. Treatment options vary from topical steroids to circumcision.
  • Urolithiasis (Kidney Stones): The formation of stones in the kidney, bladder, or urinary tract. Treatment depends on the size and location of the stones and may include medication, lithotripsy, or surgery.
  • Hydronephrosis: Swelling of a kidney due to a build-up of urine. It can be caused by obstruction or VUR. Treatment depends on the cause and severity of the condition.
  • Genitourinary Malformations: This includes a broad range of congenital abnormalities such as bladder exstrophy, epispadias, and ambiguous genitalia. Treatment is tailored to the specific condition and may involve multiple surgical procedures.
  • Testicular Torsion: A medical emergency where the spermatic cord becomes twisted, cutting off blood supply to the testicle. Immediate surgical intervention is required to save the affected testicle.

Pediatric urologists work closely with families to develop individualized treatment plans that address the physical and emotional wellbeing of the child.

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